Satyana et al., 1999 – Tectonic controls on the hydrocarbon habitats of the Barito, Kutei, and Tarakan Basins, Eastern Kalimantan, Indonesia: major dissimilarities in adjoining basins

Tectonic controls on the hydrocarbon habitats of the Barito, Kutei, and Tarakan Basins, Eastern Kalimantan, Indonesia: major dissimilarities in adjoining basins

Awang Harun Satyana*, Djoko Nugroho*, Imanhardjo Surantoko*
* JOB PERTAMINA—Santa Fe Salawati, Menara Mutia, 10th Floor, Jalan Gatot Subroto 9-11, Jakarta12930, Indonesia

Journal of Asian Earth Sciences Volume 17 (1–2), 99–122.


The Barito, Kutei, and Tarakan Basins are located in the eastern half of Kalimantan (Borneo) Island, Indonesia. The basins are distinguished by their different tectonic styles during Tertiary and Pleistocene times. In the BaritoBasin, the deformation is a consequence of two distinct, separate, regimes. Firstly, an initial transtensional regime during which sinistral shear resulted in the formation of a series of wrench-related rifts, and secondly, a subsequent transpressional regime involving convergent uplift, reactivating old structures and resulting in wrenching, reverse faulting and folding within the basin. Presently, NNE–SSW and E–W trending structures are concentrated in the northeastern and northern parts of the basin, respectively. In the northeastern part, the structures become increasingly imbricated towards the Meratus Mountains and involve the basement. The western and southern parts of the Barito Basin are only weakly deformed. In the Kutei Basin, the present day dominant structural trend is a series of tightly folded, NNE–SSW trending anticlines and synclines forming the Samarinda Anticlinorium which is dominant in the eastern part of the basin. Deformation is less intense offshore. Middle Miocene to Recent structural growth is suggested by depositional thinning over the structures. The western basin area is uplifted, large structures are evident in several places. The origin of the Kutei structures is still in question and proposed mechanisms include vertical diapirism, gravitational gliding, inversion through regional wrenching, detachment folds over inverted structures, and inverted delta growth-fault system. In the Tarakan Basin, the present structural grain is typified by NNE–SSW normal faults which are mostly developed in the marginal and offshore areas. These structures formed on older NW–SE trending folds and are normal to the direction of the basin sedimentary thickening suggesting that they developed contemporaneously with deposition, as growth-faults, and may be the direct result of sedimentary loading by successive deltaic deposits. Older structures were formed in the onshore basin, characterized by the N–S trending folds resulting from the collision of the Central Range terranes to the west of the basin. Hydrocarbon accumulations in the three basins are strongly controlled by their tectonic styles. In the Barito Basin, all fields are located in west-verging faulted anticlines. The history of tectonic inversion and convergent uplift of the Meratus Mountains, isostatically, have caused the generation, migration, and trapping of hydrocarbons. In the Kutei Basin, the onshore Samarinda Anticlinorium and the offshore Mahakam Foldbelt are prolific petroleum provinces, within which most Indonesian giant fields are located. In the offshore, very gentle folds also play a role as hydrocarbon traps, in association with stratigraphic entrapment. These structures have recently become primary targets for exploratory drilling. In the Tarakan Basin, the prominent NW–SE anticlines, fragmented by NE–SW growth-faults, have proved to be petroleum traps. The main producing pools are located in the downthrown blocks of the faults. Diverse tectonic styles within the producing basins of Kalimantan compel separate exploration approaches to each basin. To discover new opportunities in exploration, it is important to understand the structural evolution of neighbouring basins.

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Satyana & Idris 1996 – Chronology and intensity of Barito uplifts, southeast Kalimantan: A geochemical constraint and windows of opportunity

Chronology and intensity of Barito uplifts, southeast Kalimantan: A geochemical constraint and windows of opportunity

Awang Harun Satyana*, Raden Idris*

* Pertamina

Proceedings, Indonesian Petroleum Association, Twenty-Fifth Silver Anniversary Convention, October 1996


Structural history of the Barito Basin during the Tertiary was marked by a great contrast in style. Extensional deformation was the prevailing style during the Paleogene. Regional uplift and compressional deformation reactivated old extensional structures starting in the Miocene and continuous up to the present time resulting in positive structures typifying the area today. Examination of burial history curves of exploration wells in the basin reveals that there were five uplift events during the Tertiary: Middle Eocene, early to middle Oligocene, late Oligocene to early Miocene (Oligo-Miocene), middle Miocene, and late Miocene to Pleistocene. The first two uplift episodes interrupted the prevailing Paleogene extensional deformation. The late Miocene to Pleistocene uplift was the major uplift event in the basin, consisting of about 1,200 meters of uplift, The Oligo-Miocene uplift was relatively minor, raising the basin about 50 meters. Barito uplifts were closely associated with coeval structure-forming compressional deformation that resulted in structural traps. The late Miocene to Pleistocene uplift was a major event within which main generation of hydrocarbon, migration, trap formation and trap destruction took place. The current search for oil is concentrated analysis of this event. However, the early to middle Oligocene uplift might provide Paleogene structural traps which have been excluded from exploration consideration. Accurate understanding of chronology and intensity of basin uplifts can guide exploration effort as well as uncover new prospect possibilities.

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Satyana & Biantoro 1995 – Seismic stratigraphy of Eocene Beriun Sands of West Bungalun, East Kalimantan, Indonesia: A contribution to the Paleogene stratigraphical knowledge of the Kutei Basin

Seismic stratigraphy of Eocene Beriun Sands of West Bungalun, East Kalimantan, Indonesia: A contribution to the Paleogene stratigraphical knowledge of the Kutei Basin

Awang Harun Satyana*,  Elan Biantoro*

* PERTAMINA, Jakarta

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sequence Stratigraphy in SE Asia, Indonesian Petroleum Association, May 1995


The Kutei Basin, East Kalimantan, is the largest and deepest Tertiary basin in Indonesia. The basin was formed in the early Tertiary and contains up to 12,000 meters of sediments in its deepest part. Basin subsidence during the early Eocene to early Oligocene resulted in the accumulation of a generally transgressive sequences of sediments throughout the Kutei Basin In the latest Oligocene, regressive deltaic sedimentation began and became the dominant depositional regime in the basin. These Neogene deltaic deposits constitute the reservoir rocks of the prolific fields in the Kutei Basin. However, hydrocarbon accumulations have never been discovered in the Paleogene sediments of the Kutei Basin, although Paleogene accumulations occur in the Tanjung Field in the adjacent Barito Basin to the south. Accordingly, the Paleogene sediments of the Kutei Basin have not been extensively studied. The Eocene Beriun sands of the West Bungalun area, Northeast Kutei Basin are the reservoir-quality rocks equivalent to the hydrocarbon-bearing Tanjung sands of the Barito Basin. Multiple vintages of seismic data (1971-1993) were used to reveal the subsurficial nature and distribution of the Beriun Formation. On seisimic data, the Beriun sands can be recognized by their distinctive amplitude and velocity characteristics, as compared to other units within the formation. Seismic stratigraphic interpretation shows that the Beriun Formation consists of at least three seismic stratigraphic sequences. Deposition of these sediments was contemporaneous with, and affected by, growth faulting, resulting in varying sedimentary thicknesses laterally. Based on this seismic sequence study, we suggest that the Beriun sediments were deposited as fan delta deposits in an extensional tectonic regime. This study supports that the Beriun sands are potential reservoir rocks in the Kutei Basin.

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Satyana & Silitonga 1994 – Tectonic reversal in East Barito Basin, south Kalimantan: Consideration of the types of inversion structures and petroleum system significance

Tectonic reversal in East Barito Basin, south Kalimantan: Consideration of the types of inversion structures and petroleum system significance

Awang Harun Satyana*, Parada D. Silitonga**

* Pertamina

** Total Indonesie

Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, Twenty Third Annual Convention, October 1994


The Barito Basin, South Kalimantan, is located between Sundaland to the west and the Meratus Range to the east. Tectonic reversal characterizes Tertiary structural history of the eastern part of the basin. In Paleogene time, extensional deformation prevailed through a period of rifting and subsidence giving rise to a series of NW to SE trending horsts and grabens. In the Neogene, compressional deformation aligned broadly WNW to ESE has reactivated and inverted Paleogene structures producing wrench faults, folds, and reverse faults within the basin. The East Barito inversion structures are examined in detail to define the types of the structures based on Mitra’s (1993) classification of inversion structures. The study concluded that the East Barito inversion structures fall under the type formed by simple fault propagation folding along a planar fault. The structures originated through a number of mechanisms: (1) compressional movement along the  restraining bends of wrench faults, (2) en echelon structures adjacent to wrench faults, and (3) direct inversion of NE-SW aligned Paleogene normal faults. The structural-stratigraphic evolution of East Barito inversion structures has provided ideal conditions for the accumulation of hydrocarbons. Growth sedimentation into an extensional basin resulted in early to middle Eocene synrift Lower Tanjung source rocks and reservoir sandstones. Postrift shales of late Eocene to early Oligocene Upper Tanjung provide an effective seal. Structural inversion which commenced in mid-early Miocene and greatly affected the basin from late Miocene to Pliocene has subsided Lower Tanjung source rocks to the depth wherein hydrocarbons could be generated and expelled. Migrated hydrocarbons were entrapped in anticlinal traps formed during the inversion. Plio-Pleistocene inversion might either create new structuraI traps or destroy previous hydrocarbon accumulations. In the latter case, hydrocarbons would remigrate and be trapped in the newly-formed inversion structures. Tanjung Raya fields represent such ideal hydrocarbontrapping conditions. Remaining hydrocarbon potential should be considered before and after the advent of basin inversion.

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Satyana & Silitonga 1993 – Thin-skinned tectonics and fault-propagation folds: New insight to the tectonic origin of Barito folds, south Kalimantan

Thin-skinned tectonics and fault-propagation folds: New insight to the tectonic origin of Barito folds, south Kalimantan

Awang H. Satyana*, P.D. Silitonga*

* Pertamina

Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Convention of the Indonesian Association of Geologist 1993


Barito basin, South Kalimantan is located in between Sunda Shield to the west and Meratus Range to the east. The area is foreland-backarc region typified by foredeep at the frontal zone of Meratus and platform approaching the shield. The structural style of the Barito foredeep is characterized by parallel trends of folds and thrusts that repeat in closely spaced, wave-like bands constituting the belts. The folds are bounded by high angle, westerly –hanging thrust faults. These structures become increasingly imbricate towards the Meratus Range. Conjugate pair of strike-slip faults cut older structures. The platform is marked by weak tectonic patterns, some of which with gentle folds. The study tried to apply concepts of thin-skinned (detached) tectonics and fault-propagation folds in search of the tectonic origin of Barito folds. Seismic sections were examined to define the structural characteristics of the basin. Retrodeformable sections were tested to solve the problems of structural history. The study showed that the Barito Basin had been tectonized into different structural styles of un-real basement-involved tectonics with fault-related folds in the foredeep and indistinct thin-skinned tectonics in the platform with discontinuous decollement, ramps and obscure fault-propagation folds. The hydrocarbon so far is known to be trapped in the fault-related folds and paleohighs of the northeastern end of Barito foredeep. The possibility of decollement folds to trap hydrocarbon still needs to be examined by newer-and better-quality seismic sections of the platform area.

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Satyana & Samuel 1993 – Remote sensing technology and its application to hydrocarbon exploration in Indonesia

Remote sensing technology and its application to hydrocarbon exploration in Indonesia

Awang H. Satyana*, Luki Samuel*

* Pertamina

Proceedings LEMIGAS-JICA Remote Sensing Conference, Jakarta 1993


Remote sensing is defined as collecting and interpreting information on a target without being in physical contact with the object. Today, remote sensing technology is enable to produce high quality images including aerial photograph, landsat, SPOT and radar imageries. Development in digital image processing supported by high-tech computer hardware and software produce remote sensing data that are not only usable for reconnaissance study, but also for detail analysis. Remote sensing has proved to be powerful tool in hydrocarbon exploration. In Indonesia, oil companies have widely used remote sensing technique in finding out hydrocarbon. Integration of remote sensing data with other subsurface exploration data has led to the discovery of several major oil fields in the region.

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Tethyan and non-Tethyan Early Cretaceous radiolarian faunas from West Timor, Indonesia: Paleogeographic and tectonic significance

Tethyan and non-Tethyan Early Cretaceous radiolarian faunas from West Timor, Indonesia: Paleogeographic and tectonic significance

Munasri1 and Katsuo Sashida2

1 Research and Development Center for Geotechnology-LIPI, Bandung, Indonesia
2 Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Japan

(Earth Evolution Sciences, Vol. 12, pp. 3-12, March, 1, 2018)

Abundant and well-preserved Early Cretaceous radiolarians were recovered from calcilutites and shales of the Nakfunu Formation, Kolbano area, southern West Timor. The Cretaceous to Pliocene sedimentary rocks of the Kolbano area are an accretionary complex stacked at the leading edge of the Banda Islands arc. Radiolarian faunas of the Nakfunu Formation are characterized by the presence of unknown taxa elsewhere except its similarity with those of samples from the ODP Leg 123 Cores 765, regarded as non-Tethyan faunas. Four radiolarian assemblages have been discriminated, which indicate the range of Berriasian to early Aptian with a trend from non-Tethyan to Tethyan deposits in progressively younger strata. Stratigraphically, however, these strata are not in ascending order. The formation was imbricated, which was shown by frequent and random repetition of radiolarian assemblages in the strata. We believe that the faunas were derived from the southern paleolatitude origin generated by the influx of circumantarctic current. During the arc-continent collision commenced in the early Pliocene, the sequences were frontally accreted at the subduction zone. This findings may provide new insights to reveal the paleogeographic and tectonic significance of the island that has a long standing controversy, i.e. the original (pre deformational) location of the various stratigraphic units now present on Timor.

Keywords: Cretaceous, Non-Tethyan, Radiolaria, Tethyan, Timor Island


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The use of microstructures for discriminating turbiditic and hemipelagic muds and mudstones

Kase, Y., Sato, M., Nishida, N., Ito, M., Mukti, M.M. ruf, Ikehara, K., Takizawa, S., 2016. Sedimentology 63, 2066–2086. doi:10.1111/sed.12296

The microstructures of turbiditic and hemipelagic muds and mudstones were investigated using a scanning electron microscope to determine whether there are microstructural features that can differentiate turbiditic from hemipelagic sedimentary processes. Both types of muddy deposits are, in general, characterized by randomly oriented clay particles. However, turbiditic muds and mudstones also characteristically contain aggregates of ‘edge-to-face’ contacts between clay particles with long-axis lengths of up to 30 lm. Based on observations of the clay fabric of the experimentally-formed muds settled from previously agitated muddy fluids, these types of aggregates, hereafter referred to as ‘aggregates of clay particles’, are interpreted as having been formed by the collision of component flocs in turbulent fluids. Furthermore, some aggregates of clay particles have ‘face-to-face’ contacts between clay particles; this is similar to face-to-face aggregates characteristically developed in fluid-mud deposits that are commonly recognized only in turbiditic mudstones, indicating the possibility of a final stage of deposition under highly dense conditions, such as temporary fluid muds. In conjunction with earlier proposed lithofacies-based and ichnofacies-based criteria, aggregates of clay particles should be useful for the differentiation of turbiditic and hemipelagic muddy deposits, particularly with limited volumes of non-oriented samples from deep-water successions.

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Regional petroleum geochemistry of Indonesian basins: Updated and implications for future exploration


Oils of Western Indonesian basins can be grouped into three broad families: (1) lacustrine (Central Sumatra, Sunda-Asri, partly West Natuna, and West Sulawesi Offshore/North Makassar Straits), (2) fluvio-deltaic (South Sumatra, West Java, East Java, Barito, Kutai, and Tarakan), and (3) marginal-shallow marine (North Sumatra and West Sulawesi Onshore). The interpreteted source rocks for most of these basins/areas are Paleogene age shales, coaly shales, and marginal-shallow marine shales and carbonates. The source rocks of the Kutai and Tarakan basins are interpreted to be Neogene age coaly shales and coals. Most of the oils from Eastern Indonesia basins/areas are marginal-shallow marine; sourced by Neogene shales, marls, carbonates (Salawati, Banggai) or Jurassic marine shales (Bintuni), Triassic-Jurassic marine shales (Timor, Buton) or Triassic-Jurassic carbonates (Seram, Timor).

Both thermogenic and biogenic (bacterial) gas types can be recognized in Indonesia. Mixing between the two types is also commonly observed. Thermogenic gases are distributed in the basins of Sumatra, Natuna, Java, Kalimantan, Makassar Straits, Sulawesi, Papua, and Timor-Arafura. Biogenic gases are found mainly in: the fore-arc basins west of Sumatra, East Java Basin, and the foredeep area of the Sorong Fault Zone, northern Papua. High concentrations of nonhydrocarbon CO2 mainly occur in North and South Sumatra, East Natuna, and onshore Java; whereas H2S concentrations are moderate to high in some gas fields in North Sumatra, South Sumatra, East Java, East Sulawesi and Salawati Basins.

Some current petroleum geochemistry issues are observed, they include: Paleogene oil seeps in Java’s volcanic areas, marine Mesozoic oil in East Java Basin, Cenozoic oil and Pre-Cenozoic gas of Banggai-Sula area, Neogene proven source rocks of Buton area, Neogene oil seep of Northern Papua, and the application of molecular biomarkers for regional tectonic studies of Indonesia.

Geochemistry has significant contribution to exploration efficiency, because it shows genetic relationships among crude oils and source rocks. Knowing precisely what the proven source is in a basin, can help building right systematic exploration strategy for the basin.

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Satyana, A.H., 2017. Future petroleum play types of Indonesia: Regional overview, in: Proceedings, Indonesian Petroleum Association 41st Annual Convention & Exhibition, May 2017